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Comparison of cancer in some species highlights new drug targets



Genetic cancers in melanoma mucous membranes, rare and poorly understood subtype melanoma, were first compared to humans, dogs and horses by researchers at Wellcome Sanger Institute and their associates. Researchers have sequenced genes of the same cancer in different types to determine key cancer genes.

Results, published in Nature Communicationsgive insight into how cancer develops through the tree of life and can lead to the development of new therapies.

Melanoma mucosa is a rare form of melanoma, a type of tumor that is usually associated with skin cancer. Of the 15,400 people with diagnosis of melanoma in the UK every year, about 1 percent will get a melanoma mucosal diagnosis.

The cancer is produced from cells producing pigment, known as melanocytes, which are found not only in the skin but also on the surfaces of the lining of the body, such as sinuses, nasal passages, mouth, vagina and anus.

Factors for the risk of melanoma of the mucous membrane are not known, and there is no known association with exposure to UV radiation or family history. Cancer patients are often late in the progression of the disease, and the main treatment for mucosal melanoma is surgical removal of tumors. Like humans, cancer affects dogs and horses with different results for different types.

To find cancer-based genetics, researchers at the Institute Sanger and their associates have sequenced the melanoma tumor genome, taken by people, dogs, and horses that have been diagnosed.

By analyzing the genomic data of 46 human, 65 canine and 28 horse melanoma tumors, all in the primary stage of cancer, scientists have discovered a handful of genes mutated in all species.

Dr. David Adams, an author who answers authors from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, said: "Genomics gives us a unique look at hidden similarities and differences in cancer among species." Horses suggest that they are important enough to preserve among species. may be the targets for the development of new medicines.

Immunotherapy, stimulation of the body's own immune system to attack cancer cells, was used to treat some people with melanoma, but it was not effective for people with subtype, mucosal melanoma, and the reason was unknown. Researchers now suggest that unlike melanoma skin melanoma tumor tumors have several mutations, so they remain 'hidden' for the immune system and do not induce the immune response needed to target cancer.

Kim Wong, the first author of the Wellcome Sanger Institute, said, "Understanding genetic changes based on melanoma mucosa suggests why people with this type of cancer can not benefit from immunotherapy." Giving information to genetic counselors and doctors advising patients on disease management. "

This research was followed by horse tumors and the first genomic experiment of this scale on dog tumors. Gray horses are genetically predisposed to obtain melanoma. However, cancer is very different in the horse because it does not usually spread, as opposed to the disease in humans and dogs.

Professor Geoffrey Wood, of Guelph University, Canada, said: "Spontaneous tumors in dogs are recognized as" models "of human cancer for the development of therapies that can be used by both species. This study shows the importance of understanding genetic similarities and differences in carcinogenic species among that priorities are the most important biologically relevant drug targets. "

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Editor's Note:

* Https: //www.cancerresearchuk.org /around cancer /melanoma/about

Learn about melanoma mucosa: https: //www.melanoma.org /understand-melanoma /what is melanoma /mucosal melanomas

Publication:

Kim Wong et al. (2019) Comparison of genomic landscape among types of human melanoma of the mucous membrane with canine oral and horse melanoma. Nature Communications, DOI: 10,1038 / s41467-018-08081-1

Financing:

This study is supported by Wellcome, Cancer Research UK and the European Research Council under the Seventh Framework Program of the European Union (FP7 / 2007-2013) / ERC (319661 COMBATCANCER).

Selected Sites:

About the University of Guelph

Guelph University is one of the leading universities in Canada. Guelph University is recognized as a University of Food Products in Canada and is known for its excellence and innovation in physical sciences, life sciences, business, arts, social sciences and agriculture and veterinary sciences. In urban centers and rural communities, U of G has nearly 30,000 undergraduate and graduate students at camps in Guelph, Toronto and Ridgetown, including 1,200 international students from more than 100 countries. Through our "whole student" approach to teaching and learning, our goal is to develop tomorrow's leaders who have creative and critical skills to face challenges and take advantage of opportunities in our ever more complex and interconnected world.

The Welcome Department

The Wellcome Sanger Institute is one of the world's leading genomic centers. With its ability to conduct research on the scale, it is able to engage in deceptive and long-term research projects that are designed to influence and strengthen medical science globally. Research findings of the Institute, obtained through its own research programs and through a leading role in international consortia, are used to develop new diagnostics and treatment of human disease. To celebrate its 25th year in 2018, the Institute distinguished 25 new genomic species in the UK. Learn more at http: // www.Sanger.ac.Great Britain or follow @sangerinstitute

About Wellcome

Wellcome exists to improve health by helping the great ideas to progress. We support researchers, take on great health challenges, campaign for better science, and help everyone to engage in scientific and health research. We are a political and financially independent foundation.

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