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Three teams independently demonstrate dipolar quantum gases that support the state of supersolid properties

Three teams independently demonstrate dipolar quantum gases that support the state of supersolid properties

In the Bose-Einstein condensate of dipolar atoms (white arrows), dense "droplets" (dark blue) are formed due to the intricate interaction between capture potentials (gray lines), dipolar and contact interactions of the atoms and quantum fluctuations. The Modugno, Pfau and Ferlaino teams have created conditions for achieving coherence between individual droplets, mediated by the background of Bose-condensed atoms (light blue) in the trap. This coherence gives an indefinite sign of supersolidity. Credits: APS / Alan Stonebraker / Physics

Three team of researchers working independently of each other have shown that certain dipolar quantum gases are capable of supporting the state of supersolid properties. The team, led by Giovanni Modugn of the University of Florence, published his discoveries Physical Review Letters, The second team, led by Tilman Pfau from the University of Stuttgart, released his findings Physical Review X, and the third, led by Francescom Ferlaino of the University of Innsbruck, arXiv print server.

Supersolids are theoretical materials with atoms that are arranged in the spatial crystal period but are able to flow like liquids when exposed to extremely cold conditions. In essence, these are solids that can flow like liquids. Due to their unique features, the researchers tried to create them in the lab, but they have not been successful so far. In these three new endeavors, all three teams claim to have used theory and experiments to demonstrate dipolar quantum gases that can support the state of supersolid properties – all three teams have achieved it using Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs), which are particularly superfluidic.

Most of the efforts to create supersolid have begun with attempts to superfluid into the crystal structure while retaining its ability to flow – but such efforts are not cured. In 2003, the two team of researchers suggested the idea of ​​atomic interaction engineering through a long-distance dipolar connection – the idea he promised but still did not lead to the creation of supersolid. All three teams in these new efforts base their efforts on this idea using BECs because they have naturally strong magnetic dipole moments that are believed to be a necessary part of creating supersolids.

All three teams worked on the idea that dense "drops" would be molded in BEC under realistic conditions, where only real interactions would result in coherence between the droplets, enabling the crystal structure to develop – as long as the flow properties of the original BEC are maintained.

Two teams, those who led Modugno and Pfau, used isotypic dysprosium-162 in their work for the repulsive forces dominated by dipolar interactions. The third team used two other isotopes, disprosium-164 and erbium-166 due to their dominant dipolar interactions. At the end all three showed that dipolar gases can be used to demonstrate supersolid properties in the material.

More information:
L. Tanzi et al. The observation of dipolar quantum gas with metastable supersolvent properties, Physical Review Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1103 / PhysRevLett.122.130405

Fabian Böttcher et al. Passing supersolid properties in a series of dipolar quantum droplets, Physical Review X (2019). DOI: 10.1103 / PhysRevX.9.011051

Longevity and transient supersolid behavior in dipolar quantum gases, arXiv: 1903.04375 [cond-mat.quant-gas] arxiv.org/abs/1903.04375

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