The history of the people of America has just been interpreted as a new one. The largest and most comprehensive study ever carried out on the basis of fossil DNA extracted from the old human remains found on the continent confirmed the existence of a unique population of ancestors for all American ethnic groups, past and present.
Over 17,000 years ago, this original contingent moved from the Bering Strait of Siberia to Alaska and began smoking the New World. Fossil DNA shows the affinity between this migratory current and the Siberian and northern Chinese populations. Contrary to traditional theory, it had nothing to do with Africa or Australia.
The new study also reveals that, after settling in North America, the offspring of this Prahova migration fluctuated in two lines some 16,000 years ago.
Panama's members crossed South America into three different consecutive waves.
The first wave occurred between 15,000 and 11,000 years. The other thing happened 9,000 years ago. There are fossil DNA records from both migrations across South America. The third wave is much newer, but its influence is limited as it happened 4,200 years ago. The members settled in the Middle East.
The article was published in the journal cell a group of 72 researchers from eight countries, associated with São Paulo University (USP) in Brazil, Harvard University in the United States, and the Max Planck Institute for Humanities History in Germany, among others.
According to research findings, the line that made the north-south route between 16,000 and 15,000 years belongs to the Clovis culture, named for a group of archaeological sites excavated in the western United States and dates back to 13,500-11,000 years.
Clovis's culture was called when 1930s landlocked in Clovis, New Mexico, was found. Clovis locations have been identified throughout the US and Mexico and Central America. In North America, Clovis hunted Pleistocene megafaunas like giant laziness and mammoths. With the fall of megafaune and its extermination 11,000 years ago, the clown culture has finally disappeared. Many years ago, however, bands of hunters and collectors traveled south to explore new hunting grounds. Settlements in Central America have ended, as confirmed by the 9,400-year-old human fossil DNA found in Belize and analyzed in a new study.
Later, perhaps while dealing with mastodon stages, Clovis hunter collectors crossed Panama's kits and expanded to South America, which is manifested by genetic records from graves in Brazil and Chile. This genetic evidence confirms well-known archaeological finds such as Monte Verde in southern Chile, where people had mastodons 14,800 years ago.
Among the many famous Clovis sites, the only Clovis-related burial site is located in Montana, where the remains of the boys (Anzick-1) were found and dated 12,600 years ago. The DNA extracted from these bones has been linked to DNA from skeletons of people who lived between 10,000 and 9,000 years in caves near Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In other words, the inhabitants of Lagoa Santa were partial offspring of Clovis migrants from North America.
"From a genetic point of view, the inhabitants of Lagoa Santa are descendants of the first Americans," said archeologist André Menezes Strauss, who co-ordinated the Brazilian part of the study. Strauss is associated with the Museum of Archeology and Ethnology at the University of Sao Paulo (MAE-USP).
"Surprisingly, the members of this first line of South Americans have not left any recognizable descendants among today's Amerindians," he said. "About 9,000 years ago, their DNA completely disappeared from fossil samples and replaced DNA from the first migratory wave before Clovis's culture. These living Americans are descendants of that first wave. We do not yet know why the genetic stock of Lagoa Santa people disappeared."
One of the possible reasons for the disappearance of DNA from another migration is that it has been diluted into the DNA of the Amerindians who are the progeny of the first wave and can not be identified by existing methods of genetic analysis.
According to Titel Hünemeier, a geneticist of the Institute of Bioscience of the São Paulo University (IB-USP), which participated in the research, "one of the main results of the study was the identification of Luzian people as genetically related to Clovis's culture, disintegrating the idea of two biological components and there are two migrations to America, one with African characteristics, the other with Asian characteristics. "
"Luzia's people had to be the result of a migratory wave that originated in Beringia," she said, speaking of the now sunken Bering land bridge joining Siberia to Alaska in glaciers when sea levels were lower.
"Molecular data suggests replacing the population in South America since 9,000 years ago, and people from Los Angeles are still living in America today, although they both had a common background in Bering," said Hünemeier.
The contribution of Brazilian researchers to the study was the foundation. Out of the 49 individuals from which fossil DNA was taken, seven skeletons dated between 10,100 and 9,100 years were from Lapa to Santo, a shelter in the rocks at Lagoa Santa.
Seven skeletons, in addition to dozens of others, were found and exhumed in successive archaeological campaigns at the site, led by Walter Alves Neves, a physical anthropologist at IB-USP, and by 2011 Strauss. The archaeological campaigns led by Neves between 2002 and 2008 were funded by the São Paulo – FAPESP Research Foundation.
All in all, a new study explored fossil DNA from 49 individuals found in 15 archeological sites in Argentina (two places, 11 individuals, between 8,900 and 6,600 years), Belize (one place, three people from 9,400 to 7,300 years ago) Chile three places, five people between 11,100 and 540 years) and Peru (seven, 15 people between 10,100 and 730),
The Brazilian skeletons come from archaeological sites Lapa to Santo (seven people who were around 9,600 years old), Jabuticabeira II in the state of Santa Catarina (sambaqui or shellfish with five people who were about 2,000 years ago), as well as two rivers in the Ribeira valley, São Paulo state: Laranjal (two individuals before about 6,700 years), and Moraes (an individual dated about 5,800 years ago).
Paulo Antônio Dantas de Blasis, an archaeologist associated with MAE-USP, led excavations at Jabuticabeira II, which also supported FAPESP through Temporary Projects.
Slabs in the São Paulo countryside were led by Levy Figuti, also an archaeologist at MAE-USP, and supported by FAPESP.
"Kostur Moraes (5,800 years old) and Laranjal Skeleton (6,700 years old) are among the oldest of the South and South-East Brazil," Figuti said. "These locations are strategically unique because they are located between the Atlantic and coastal shores, which makes a significant contribution to understanding the way Southeast Brazil is filled."
These skeletons were found from 2000 to 2005. From the outset, they represented a complex mixture of coastal and inner cultural features, and the results of their analysis are generally different, except in the case of a skeleton diagnosed as a paleoindian (its DNA analysis is not complete).
"The study just released is a major step forward in archaeological research, exponentially increasing what we knew just a few years ago about the archeogenetics of the American population," Figuti said.
Hünemeier has also recently made a significant contribution to the reconstruction of human history in South America by means of paleogenomics.
Not all human remains found in some of the oldest archeological sites in Central and South America belonged to the genetic descendants of clown culture. Residents of several places did not have DNA associated with Clovis.
"It shows that apart from the genetic contribution, the second wave of migration to South America, which was linked to Clovis, could also bring technological principles that would be expressed in the well-known fish spots in many parts of South America," Strauss said.
How many human migrations from Asia came to America at the end of the Ice Age more than 16,000 years ago, so far unknown. The traditional theory, formulated in the eighties by Neves and other researchers, was that the first wave had African characteristics or features similar to those of the Aboriginal Australians.
The well-known forensic reconstruction of Lucy's face was performed according to this theory. Luzia's name was given to the fossil skull of a woman who lived in the Lagoa Santa region 12,500 years ago and is sometimes referred to as "the first Brazilian".
Bust of Lucy with African features was built on the skull morphology of British anatomist Richard Neave in the nineties.
"However, the shape of the skull is not a reliable marker of precision or geographic origin. Genetics is the best basis for this type of conclusion," Strauss explained.
"The genetic results of the new study show that there was no significant association between the Lagoa Santa and the groups from Africa or Australia, so the hypothesis that Luzia's people were derived from the migration wave before the ancestors of today's Amerindians was denied. On the contrary, DNA shows that Luzini's people were completely Amerindian. "
The new bust replaced Luzia in the Brazilian scientific pantheon. Caroline Wilkinson, a forensic anthropologist at Liverpool's John Moores University in the United Kingdom and Disciple of Neave, produced a reconstruction of one of the individuals exhumed in Lapa to Santo. Reconstruction was based on a re-formed digital skull model.
"As we are accustomed to the traditional facade of Lucy's reconstruction with very African features, this new facial reconstruction reflects a much larger physiognomy of the first inhabitants of Brazil, depicting the generalized and unclear features from which the great American variety has been over a thousand years old," Strauss said.
Study published in cell, he added, is also the first genetic data on the Brazilian coast sambaquis.
"These monumental shell shells were built by populated settlements on the coast of Brazil some 2,000 years ago.The analysis of fossil DNA from the tombs of Santa Catarina and São Paulo shows that these groups are genetically similar to US residents today in the south of Brazil, especially in groups Kaingang, "he said.
According to Strauss, DNA extraction from the fossil is technically very demanding, especially if the material is found in a tropical climate. For almost two decades, extreme fragmentation and significant pollution have prevented the successful isolation of genetic material from the bones found in Lagoa Santa by various research groups.
This is now done thanks to the methodological advances developed by the Max Planck Institute. As Strauss explained enthusiastically, much more needs to be revealed.
"The construction of the first archeological laboratories in Brazil should begin in 2019, thanks to the partnership between the Museum of Archeology and Ethnology of the São Paulo University and its Bioscience Institute (IB) with funding from FAPESP to give a new boost to the research of populations of South America and Brazil" Strauss said.
"To some extent, this study not only changes what we know about how the region is populated, but also significantly changes how we study the human remains of the skeleton," Figuti said.
Human remains were first found in Lagoa Santa in 1844, when Danish naturalist Peter Wilhelm Lund (1801-1880) discovered about 30 skeletons deep in the flooded cave. Almost all these fossils are now in Denmark's Natural History Museum in Copenhagen. One skull remained in Brazil. Lund donated to the Brazilian Institute of History and Geography in Rio de Janeiro.
Colonization by leaps and bounds
The same day as cell The article was published (November 8, 2018), a paper in the journal Science also reported new findings on fossil DNA from the first migrants to America. André Strauss is one of the authors.
Among the 15 old skeletons from which genetic material was taken, five are located in the Lund Collection in Copenhagen. They are between 10,400 and 9,800 years. They are the oldest in the sample, along with a Nevada individual who is estimated at 10,700 years.
The sample contained fossilized human remains from Alaska, Canada, Brazil, Chile and Argentina. The results of his molecular analysis point to the fact that the nation of America's first human group outside of Alaska emerged only through the gradual occupation of the territory at the same time as the growth of the population.
According to research researchers, molecular data suggests that the first people who attack Alaska or neighbor Yukon are divided into two groups. This happened between 17,500 and 14,600 years. One group colonized North and Central America, the second South America.
People from America followed jumps, as a small group of hunters and collectors traveled far and wide to accommodate new areas until they reached Tierra del Fuego on a one or two thousandth anniversary.
Of the 15 respondents whose DNA was analyzed, three of Lagoa Santa Pet were found to have some genetic materials from Australia, as suggested by the theory suggested by Neves for the occupation of South America. Researchers can not explain the origins of this Australasian DNA or how it ended only in a few residents of Lagoa Santa.
"The fact that the genomic signature of australasia is present in 10,400 years in Brazil, but is absent in all the genes that are older or older and are further north, is a challenge due to its presence in Lagoa Santa," they said.
Other fossils collected during the twentieth century include Luzija skull, found in the seventies of the last century. Almost 100 skates that have been excavated by Neves and Strauss over the past 15 years are now being held in the USP. A similar number of fossils are held at the Papal Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-MG).
But the vast majority of these osteological and archaeological treasures, which are perhaps more than 100 individuals, are stored in the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro and are probably destroyed in the fires that exploded through this historic building on September 2, 2018.
Skily Luzie was at the National Museum exhibition with Neave's facial reconstruction. The scientists feared he was lost in the fire but fortunately it was one of the first buildings to recover from the ruin. She broke up, but she survived. The fire destroyed the original reconstruction of faces (of which a few copies).