Friday , April 23 2021

Research: Replacement of bacteria can help "Nemo" fish live with anemones killing fish –



Nemo, a beautiful cougar in the movie Finding Nemo, rubbed the entire anemone in which he lived to keep him from torturing and eating it as if most of the fish. This rubbing leads the composition of microbes covering the clogs to change, according to a new study.

Having bacterial coefficients in the community with anemones clonooks can conveniently nestle in poisonous anemone tetons, a strange symbiosis that life scientists – including Georgia Institute of Technology teams – have been trying to detect for decades. Marine researchers studied microbes on clam fish that were mixed and mixed with anemones killing fish.

"It's an iconic mutualism between hosts and partners, and we knew we were microbes on every surface of each animal," said Frank Stewart, associate professor at the Georgia Tech School of Biological Sciences. "In this particular mutualism, these surfaces are covered with things that the microbe likes to eat: mucus."

Stashing the mucus

Klaunfish and anemone replace a lot of servlets when they are tossed. The scientists brought clams and anemones together and analyzed microorganisms in the mucus that covered the fish when they were hosts of anemones and when they were not.

"The microbe has changed," said Zoe Pratte, Postdoctoral Researcher at Stewart's Laboratory, and the first author of a new study. "The two bacteria that we have monitored are particularly multiplied with contact with anemones."

"In addition, there have been major changes," said Stewart, chief investigator of the study. "If you looked at the total clusters of the microbes, they looked quite different on the clone fish that was host to the anemone and the one who was not."

For eight weeks, researchers investigated 12 diggers into six fish tanks to eliminate mucus and identify microorganisms through genetic sequencing. They have published their results in the journal Coral reefs, The research was funded by the Simons Foundation.

Questions and answers

Here are some questions and answers about the experiment, which produced some fun anecdotes, with fascinating facts about anemones and clownfish. For example: pepper fish on anemones makes the latter more powerful. Clown fish change genders. And it was especially hard to catch the fish that the researchers called "Houdini".

Does this solve the secret of this weird symbiosis?

No, but it's a new approach to clone knockout and anemone.

"This is the first step that raises the question:" Is there a part of a changing microbe that changes? ", Said Stewart. The study gave an answer to the side of the chameleon, which was "yes".

The previous hypothetical hypothesis held that the mucus from the cup of the cup was too thick to slip. Current ideas believe that the mucus is covered with clomid with anemone antigen, that is, its own immune proteins, or that fish and fish killers can exchange chemical messages.

"Anemon can detect a chemical on the chamois that keeps it from the sting," Stewart said. "And that could include microbes. Microbes are excellent chemists."

Forward, researchers want to analyze mucus chemistry. They still do not know to what extent the microorganisms on the fish are changed due to the bacteria that fish are scavenging from the anemone. It is possible that the fish microbial microbial can develop differently on the fish due to the contact.

What anemones usually do for fish?

Kill them and eat them.

"Anemon has developed to kill the fish, throws a small poison dart into the skin of the fish to kill him and then pulls it in his mouth," Stewart said. "The clown fish gets away with a real life in it."

By the way, ticala is not harmful to people.

"If you touch the anemone, it feels like you're sucking your finger," Pratt said. "Their little harpens feel like they stick to you. It does not hurt."

What are anemones and clones out of the relationship?

For starters, they are protected from potential prey. But there's a lot more. Some clam fishes even change genders living in anemone.

"When they start hosting, the fish make a major developmental change," Stewart said. "The first fish in the group that is established in the anemone in wild transitions from male to female is becoming increasingly bigger and becoming the dominant member of the group."

She is then the only woman in the school of small male friends.

Anemones seem to grow bigger and healthier, partly because they clumble wet on them.

"When the fish slurps, the algae in the anemone take nitrogen, then they excrete sugars that feed the anemone and make it grow," Pratt said. "Sometimes the fish falls into food and falls into the anemone that eats it."

All the fun anecdotes from this experiment?

Much: It was interesting to know, but it was difficult to do it, partly because the researchers took careful care of the fish at the same time.

"You need to get fish and anemones to mingle, and the fish can be hosted elsewhere, like nail in the rock," Pratt said.

"Clownfish are smarter than other fish, so it's harder to catch them, especially when we want to reduce the stress on animals," said Alicia Caughman, an undergraduate scientist at Fast Track to the Research School of Biological Science. "We named a fish Houdini." He could leap over the net and narrow space and usually outline who tried to catch him. "

"We also had" bubbles "that smoked a lot of bubbles, the Biggie & # 39; Smalls & # 39 ;, Broad & # 39 ;; # 39; Sheila & # 39; & # 39; Earl & # 39; & # 39; & # 39; Flounder & # 39; & # 39; said Pratt. The clownfish have different sizes and details in their stripes, allowing people to separate them.

Anemon's side of the microbiological question may prove to be more difficult to answer because for all Houdini's traps, anemones, who are immature non-vertebrates, are even more trying. They can cling to unpleasant niches or connect aquarium drainage, and they also have temperamental microbes.


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