India continues to have the greatest burden of pneumonia and deaths deaths in the world with 158,176 pneumonia and 102,813 deaths in 2016, according to the International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC) report on pneumonia and diarrhea progress.
The report found "poorly short-term" health systems to ensure that the most vulnerable children have access to prevention and treatment services in 15 countries, including India, accounting for 70 percent of global pneumonia and diarrhea deaths in children under the age of five.
Despite significant reductions in disease in recent years due to improved access to and use of health interventions, nearly half a million pneumonia and deaths of diarrhea have continued in two countries – India and Nigeria, she said.
The number of deceased children under five years of pneumonia in the year 2016 was 1.58.176, and deaths of diarrhea were 1.02.813, the report states.
Released on the 10th annual World Day of Pneumonia on November 12 at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health describes progress in combating these two diseases in 15 countries.
According to the report, 15 countries with the highest number of lung inflammations and the deaths of children are India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Chad, Angola, Somalia, Indonesia, Tanzania, China, Niger, Bangladesh, Uganda and Ivory Coast.
By developing RotaC coverage, it is reported that since 2017 rotavirus vaccines have not been introduced in eight of the 15 focus countries – Nigeria, DRC, Chad, Somalia, Indonesia, China, Bangladesh and Uganda.
Of the seven countries where rotavirus vaccine has been introduced, the median coverage of the full rotavirus vaccine is 58 percent. "Among countries that have been vaccinated since 2017, the lowest coverage level was in Pakistan (12%) and India (13%), both of which have recently begun the national rollout phases that have not yet reached all the states or provinces," he said is a report.
Developing progress in India, home to more than five pneumonia and death of diarrhea than any other country in 2016, "mixed," he said. Increasing the coverage of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, as well as the continued increase in rotavirus vaccines, first introduced in mid-2016, led to a rapid record of these interventions since the last year's report.
"It was introduced in 2017, pneumococcally conjugated vaccine (PCV) has been included in only six countries to date. There is a need to consider further vaccine increases for all countries," the report analyzed government data said.
It was also pointed out that Indian results for exclusive breastfeeding were rejected as well as ORS coverage. "The share of children who receive important treatments remains weak, with only 20% receiving ORS for diarrhea," she said.
"Progress to stop the deaths of children is endangered by persistent inequalities in countries across the globe," said Kate O'Brien, MD, MPH, professor at the Bloomberg School's International Health Care Department and IVAC's executive director. "Addressing this inequality will require a higher level of funding, strong political commitment, better support for the responsibility, and coordinated global efforts to give priority to the most vulnerable," he added.
The report has shown that, although countries are advancing in improving vaccine coverage, they are seriously lagging behind in efforts to cure childhood illnesses – especially among populations remote, impoverished or otherwise left behind.