And those answers can come from quantum computers. Quantum computers, on the other hand, use qubits, which are usually subatomic particles, such as electrons or photons. In other words, a quantum computer acts by controlling the behavior of these particles, but in a completely different method from our computers. Quantum computers use cubes instead of transistors, which can have multiple positions simultaneously (1 and 0 at a time) and which can be thousands of times faster than current computers.
However, they will not replace the conventional computers we all use at home or in the office. Using a computer will continue to be the simplest and most economical solution to solve most problems. However, quantum computers promise the development of interesting advances in various fields, from materials science to pharmaceutical research. Companies are already experimenting with them to develop products such as lighter and stronger electric car batteries and to help create new drugs.
Currently, all major technology companies, as well as researchers from universities around the world, are working and competing to be the first to launch a quantum computer.
In fact, Google announced in September that it had achieved "quantum supremacy" with the help of supercomputers, with capabilities far superior to those of most powerful conventional computers. Researchers say their processor is capable of performing an operation in three minutes and twenty seconds that would require 10,000 years of advanced computers today.
Although quantum computer prototypes already exist, they can only perform tasks similar to those performed by a normal computer, but faster. An example might be Fujitsu, which launched a quantum-inspired chip this year called Digital Annealer. Annealer digital computing architecture narrows the gap in the quantum world and paves the way for faster and more efficient business today. The solution is designed to solve large-scale optimization problems that are unsolvable using today's classic computers.
Meanwhile, Intel's rivals have introduced quantum processors, though not yet available to commercial customers. And the French from Atos are investing with the Paris authorities in a modern R&D center for quantum computing technology.
IBM appears to have made the most progress after launching the first quantum off-the-lab quantum computer at the CES 2019 Las Vegas Electronics Show in Las Vegas earlier this year, without passing a specific date. IBM Q System One is 20 kbps and is far from the processing power promised by quantum technology, but the manufacturer reminds us that it is an upgradeable system.
What quantum computers use and how it will transform the world
One of the most promising applications of quantum computers is to simulate the behavior of matter to the molecular level. Car manufacturers like Volkswagen and Daimler use quantum computers to simulate the chemical composition of electric vehicle batteries to find new ways to improve their performance.
Second, quantum technologies could transform healthcare. Pharmaceutical companies use them to analyze and compare compounds that could lead to the creation of new drugs. In the future, by and large, quantum simulation of drug development could lead to the treatment of diseases like Alzheimer's, affecting thousands of lives.
Microsoft researchers announced in July that they were using an algorithm designed to work on a quantum computer that does not yet exist to improve the speed and quality of medical images. That means one day breast cancer and other ailments can improve, say the company. For example, they could allow doctors to determine in a few days whether a tumor is shrinking in response to chemotherapy and will not wait for weeks or months.
Also in the medical field, another transformation would be the way we do MRI. Microsoft has worked with scientists at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland who specialize in a type of medical imaging called magnetic resonance imaging (or MRF), as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using magnetic fields. powerful and radio waves to create images of internal organs and soft tissues. But while traditional MRs can only identify areas of light or darkness that the radiologist must subjectively evaluate, MRF can accurately distinguish between tissue types, allowing for more detailed and thus easier to interpret images.
Cars are also great for optimization issues, as they can go through many potential solutions very quickly. Airbus, for example, uses them to calculate the most efficient routes for boarding and descending aircraft. Volkswagen has also introduced a service that calculates optimal routes for buses and taxis in cities to reduce traffic congestion. Some researchers also believe that machines could be used to accelerate artificial intelligence, one of the most promising new technologies.
The financial and banking system will also be different from what we know today, because a quantum computer will be able to control risks and returns in an investment portfolio.
And these are just the apps we can imagine today, but who knows what apps we will discover along the way.
As long as we have a truly quantum computer, nobody knows exactly. Fujitsu, for example, says it will have the first of its kind in about ten years. However, it may take several years for quantum computers to reach their full potential, but if decades ago the concept seemed to be the utopia of a SF novel, we are now closer to realizing it.