Based on computational simulations and new observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter / submillimeter (ALMA) tool, researchers discovered that gas rings surrounding active superhighway black holes are not simple grape varieties. Instead, the gas being ejected from the center reacts with gases that create a dynamic pattern of circulation, similar to a water fountain in the city park.
Most galaxies have a super-massive black hole, millions or billions of times as hard as the Sun, in their centers. Some of these black holes push the material pretty active. But astronomers believed that instead of falling directly into the black hole, the substance was instead built around the active black holes forming the tavern.
Takuma Izumi, a researcher at the National Star Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), led the team of astronomers used by ALMA to observe the supermassive black holes in the Galaxy Circus which is 14 million light years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation of the divider. The team then compared their observations to a computer simulation of a falling black hole using the Cray XC30 ATERUI supercomputer operated by NAOJ. This comparison showed that I suppose "donut" is actually not rigid, but a complex collection of high-dynamic gas components. First, the cold molecular gas falling to the black hole creates the disk near the plane of rotation. As it approaches the black hole, this gas is heated until the molecules break down into component atoms and ions. Some of these atoms are then expelled above and below the disk, rather than being absorbed by the black holes. That hot atomic gas falls back to the disk creating a turbulent three-dimensional structure. These three components are circulating continuously, similar to the water fountains in the city park.
"Previous theoretical models pose a priori presumptions of solid donuts," explains Keiichi Wada, a theorist at Kagoshima University, Japan, who runs a simulation study and is a member of the research team. "Instead of starting from assumptions, our simulation began with physical equations and showed for the first time that gas circulation naturally creates a donut. Our simulation can also explain the various observational features of the system."
"By exploring the motion and distribution of cold molecular gas and warm atomic gas with ALMA, we have shown the origin of the so-called" donut "structure around active black holes," Izumi said. "Based on that discovery we have to rewrite the textbooks of astronomy."
Rotating the gas ring around the active super-massive black hole
Takuma Izumi et al. Circumnuclear multiphase gas in the circus galaxy. II. The molecular and atomic supply structures discovered with ALMA, Astrophysical magazine (2018). DOI: 10.3847 / 1538-4357 / aae20b