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As ocean temperatures rise, sea stars can not be the only ones affected by contagious disease




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A healthy star of the sun (Pycnopodia helianthoides) in the surfgrass bed.Jacqueline Sones

In 2013 and 2014, the disease is dissipated starfish population from Mexico to Alaska, When the sea star is infected with loss syndrome, white lesions appear on her body, the surrounding tissue breaks down, and the body eventually collapses, eventually causing the animal to fall. & Nbsp; caused by viral pathogens& Nbsp (a "densovirus associated with a sea star"), it was unclear what caused the outbreak of disease in the first place. & nbsp; And although many sea stars began to recover, the populations of the charismatic star of a sunflower – which can grow up to 3 meters in diameter – continues. nbsp; Now, new study suggests that ocean warming is likely to be blamed for further absence from the Pacific coast.

"The number of sea stars has remained so low in the last three years, we consider them vulnerable in the southern part of their range, and we do not have data for northern Alaska," says& Nbsp;Dr. Drew HarvellProfessor at Cornell University and principal author of this research.

Purple ocher star (Pisaster ochraceus) that suffers from the loss of the disease.Jacqueline Sones

In deepwater habitats, sunflower star & nbsp; is & nbsp;on the first line sea ​​starter loss syndrome. & nbsp; Eleven years of collected data during diving & nbsp; in the waters & nbsp; between southern California & nbsp; and Alaska have shown that the stars of the flower of the sun were too crowded before 2013. Scientists also found that the ocean was warming for almost 39& Deg;F over a period of four years at some locations within that range. & Nbsp; challenge to connect increases the temperature until the outbreak of the disease is lost. However, Dr. Harvell and her colleagues were able to show how the Sunflower star population collapsed, following patterns of unusual warmth in the Pacific Ocean.

"It's important to remember that the disease is a normal part of marine and land ecosystems," warnings Dr. Colleen Burge, who studying seasickness& nbsp; but & nbsp; did not participate in the sun star research "Many factors, including changes caused by human activity … can improve the transmission of disease in the ocean and on the land. "

In recent years, the Pacific is & nbsp; experienced & nbsp;record temperatures& Nbsp; i & nbsp;marine thermal waves& nbsp; that is expect to become more common such as climate change is intensified. The warm period of the eighties caused a mass outbreak foot drying syndrome& nbsp; among walnut types and & nbsp; in the end it has led to the black ear becoming federally protected endangered speciesAnd that is proof climate change will also affect coral, shellfish, seaweed, fish and marine mammals.

"Of course, none of this is happening in the vacuum," says Dr. Burge, "Other human-induced factors can cause the disease or be a factor in the transmission of the disease in this very rapid warm-up."

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A healthy star of the sun (Pycnopodia helianthoides) in the surfgrass bed.Jacqueline Sones

In 2013 and 2014, the disease has destroyed the starfish population from Mexico to Alaska. When the sea star is infected with loss syndrome, white lesions appear on her body, the surrounding tissue breaks down, and the body eventually breaks down and eventually causes the animal to fall. Although it is understood that sea starvation loss syndrome is caused by viral pathogens (densovirus associated with a sea star"), it was unclear what caused the outbreak of the disease, and although many sea stars began to recover, the population of the charismatic star of a sunflower – which can grow up to 3 meters in diameter – is still falling. Now a new study suggests that ocean warming is likely wrong for his continued absence from the Pacific coast.

"The number of sea stars has remained so low in the last three years, we consider them vulnerable in the southern part of their range, and we do not have data for northern Alaska,Dr. Drew Harvell, a professor at Cornell University and the principal author of this study.

Purple ocher star (Pisaster ochraceus) that suffers from the loss of the disease.Jacqueline Sones

In the deep aquatic habitats of the sunflower star it was on the first line of starfish loss syndrome. Eleven years of data collected during diving in waters between southern California and Alaska showed that stars of sunflowers were too crowded before 2013 and that their populations fell considerably after the onset of losing syndrome. Scientists also found that the ocean was warming for almost 39°F within four years in some places within that range. However, the uneven nature of this warming has caused the challenge of linking the increase in temperature with the emergence of a growing disease. However, Dr. Harvell and her colleagues were able to show how the Sunflower star population collapsed, following patterns of unusual warmth in the Pacific Ocean.

"It's important to remember that the disease is a normal part of marine and land ecosystems," warns Dr. Colleen Burge, who is studying seas, but was not involved in exploring the sunflower star.Many factors, including changes caused by human activity … can improve the transmission of disease in the ocean and on the land. "

In recent years, the Pacific has experienced record temperatures and sea waves that are expected to become more frequent as climate change intensifies. The warm period of the 1980s caused a massive outbreak of foot-lining syndrome among pelin species and ultimately led to black ears becoming federally protected endangered species. There is also evidence that climatic changes will also affect coral, shellfish, seaweed, fish and marine mammals.

"Of course, nothing is happening in the vacuum," says Dr. Burge. "Other human-induced factors can trigger the disease or be a factor in the transmission of the disease … in this period of rapid warming."


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